Black sea – description.
In the late 17th century Peter the great, meaning “to be firmly on the Azov and Black seas”, has a boatload of “Fortress” to explore the shores of the Black sea. Sailors measured the depth and made sketches of the coastline. Thus was made the first Russian map of the Black sea. Although, according to historians, the geography of the Black sea was well known to the ancient Greeks. They laid here the trade routes and built beautiful cities.
The black sea is an inland sea, belonging to the basin of the Atlantic ocean. With the ocean this body of water through the channels sequentially connects the Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean seas. Over the Atlantic, and originate those cyclones, which bring the black bad weather. Through the narrow Straits hindered the water exchange between the seas and so the tides on the black sea coast is virtually invisible. Only occur under the action of strong winds and wind-effected processes can raise or lower the water level 30 cm On the North-East of the shallow Kerch Strait links the Black sea with the sea of Azov.
The radiant variety of its shades from blue to emerald-blue sea in all languages of the world is called “black”. The sea on the map resemble an oval, stretching from West to East on the 1150 km and from North to South nearly 580 km Severskoe location between the extreme southern point of the Crimea and the Turkish coast, which are separated by only 228 km maximum depth of 2210 m. the sea
Scientists can not calculate the exact surface area of the Black sea. It is believed that it is less than 422 thousand km2. It is known that every hundred years the sea is increased by 25 cm, This seemingly slow onset of water has led to the fact that the ancient seaside town had already disappeared in the depths of the sea.
Waters of the Black sea washes the shores of Russia, Ukraine, Abkhazia, Georgia, Romania, Turkey and Bulgaria. In some countries, the coast has its own name. In Ukraine the coastal areas called the Southern coast of the Crimea, the Turkish – Rumelian and Anatolian shores, in Russia – black sea coast of the Caucasus. On the surface of the sea is the line that separates Europe and Asia.
Modern sea view acquired only 7.5 thousand years ago in a major earthquake. Formed through the Bosphorus into a giant fresh water reservoir poured salty water of the Mediterranean sea and caused the death of many who used to live there plants and animals. Perhaps it was the flood, which are explained in the Bible. Subsequently, the decomposition of the mortal remains of freshwater inhabitants has led to the accumulation of huge amounts of hydrogen sulfide at greater depths.
Now the Black sea is the largest on the planet repository of toxic hydrogen sulphide. Excess poisonous substances begins to manifest itself already at a depth of 150 m. because Of this, the lower layers of water, representing 90% of total, completely lifeless. In these warm, thick and salty depths survive only anaerobic bacteria.
In 1927 during earthquake eyewitnesses watched tall columns of fire rising to the sky. Presumably, it was on fire mixed with the deep methane hydrogen sulfide. Sometimes during a heavy storm, a poisonous gas rises to the surface and the locals can feel its unpleasant smell.
The total length of sea coastline is about 3400 km On the background of weakly rugged bays and estuaries of the coast is the major Peninsula of Crimea. With the Eastern and southern sides are facing to the sea the Caucasus and Pontic mountains. This place is a photographer’s Paradise! The surrounding shore the steep slopes and cliffs create stunning scenery. The rest of the coast is low-lying, with the exception of some mountainous areas in the Crimea.
The black sea bottom topography can be divided into two parts – shallow water and a giant basin, a suitable close to the shores of Turkey. In large part the waters for several kilometers from the water’s edge stretches underwater gentle slope. Reaching the depth of 100 m, it ends in a steep cliff. Then begins the extensive Central part of the submarine plain, which contains small number of depressions. Research has identified on the seabed thick layer of bottom sediment.
The most extensive is the shallow part in the northwestern area of the sea. This offshore area in particularly cold years can be covered with ice. In severe winters in the district of Odessa ice thickness sometimes reaches 50 cm But usually in winter the water temperature does not drop below 6°C, and in summer warms up to 25°C.
The largest island in the Black sea often called Dzharylgach. This narrow and long (4,K km) uninhabited island belongs to Ukraine. Rather, it is not an island, a reclaimed sandbar, separated from the land. Two small Islands Berezan and snake in the path “from Varangians to the Greeks”, mentioned even in the writings of Herodotus.
Famous oceanographer Nikolai Knipovich explored and described two huge cycle that stand out in the overall scheme of the black sea currents. Two closed circle with a length of 350 km, which waves describe counter-clockwise at a speed of 25 cm/s, was called “the Glasses of the Knipovich”.
Three major rivers, the Dnieper, the Danube, the Dniester and the many small fresh water diluted sea water. Black sea water salinity is 17%, which is two times lower than oceanic. Deep river increase the level of sea water, excess of which flow through the Bosphorus to the Marmara sea. The unique geography of the Black sea, on all sides almost completely surrounded by land, affects climate and diversity of flora and fauna.
Black sea, as a living being, has its own character, history, features and secrets. It has repeatedly changed its name, form, has experienced many catastrophic events. Not so long ago I said one of the youngest seas of the planet has got its own holiday. Now in the countries of the black sea on October 31 celebrates the “Day of the Black sea”.