Description of fish: Grayling
GRAYLING (Thymallus thymallus) and European grayling differs from other species of the genus a small mouth, i.e. (upper jaw does not go beyond front edge of eye). The teeth in the jaws very weak, almost imperceptible, Gill rakers 20 to 29. Its color is very bright: back and upper sides of small round black spots, on flanks brownish longitudinal stripes. The paired fins are yellow or red, Gypsy purple, on dorsal fin quadrangular bright spots arranged in rows. Marriage dress is reflected in the brightening of the color. In males, it also increases the height of the rear part of the dorsal fin. Size grayling does not exceed 50 cm, weight is usually 0.5 to 1 kg, but marked case of capture instance 4675 Distributed in G. the European grayling is widely. Its range encompasses almost the whole of Europe — from France, England, Germany, Denmark, Scandinavia and Finland to the Ural mountains. To the South it goes to Switzerland, Danube Delta and the Dniester, in the upper reaches of the Volga and the Urals.
No grayling only in the basins of the Dnieper, don, Kuban, Crimea and the Caucasus. Wherever there is a common grayling, he prefers fast rivers with clear water, where the pit (Bocage) alternate with rapids. In some places he goes and in lakes Ladoga, Onega, and Imandra, accutane spawning occurs in the river. Grayling of our North often leaves space in estuarine rivers (Kara lip) and some where found in quantities sufficient for commercial fishing. Grayling, in General, is a predatory fish, but in shallow streams, where they usually inhabit, the food supply for them is limited. Therefore, they feed mainly on small benthic animals, fish eggs, falling into the water insects (based on what sport fishing for grayling on the fly). Big fish can swallow swims the river rodents and shrews. Grayling spawns in spring and early summer (may — June). In the South, sexual maturity is reached at 2-3-year life, in the Kama river basin on the 4th, the river Kara 7. Juvenile grayling has on the sides a broad transverse stripes, which resembles salmon petratos. In General, lifestyle grayling is very similar to that in brook trout. On the East boundary of the distribution of European grayling — the Ural mountains.
GRAYLING – a Predatory fish. Body oblong, greenish – or bluish-silvery, with black spots on back, silver, with name-Letov tint on the sides and belly, top fin large, florid-bright, chest and belly red or yellow, violet anal and caudal, adipose fin, the head is small, mouth top.
Grayling, a close relative of salmon and whitefish species, lives only in the Northern hemisphere. It inhabits clean, cold-water rivers and lakes, preferring water bodies with pebble and rocky bottom. Can form fluvial, fluviolacustrine and lacustrine pure form. In Russia, which accounts for more than half of all known species and subspecies of the family Thymallidae, this fish is found in the vast territory, stretching from Western to Eastern margins of the country. No grayling in some European regions, gravitating towards the South, as well as in the basins of several rivers of the plain between the rivers Ob and Yenisei.
The original card of the grayling is its large, similar to the flag, dorsal fin, “embroidered” pattern of spots or stripes. Moreover, the shape of this fin, drawing and coloring pattern on it of fish of different species (subspecific) populations have significant differences. There on the back of a grayling and a small adipose fin, emphasizing the nobility of the blood of this fish, related to salmon.
Grayling can reach a weight of 2.5 – 3.0 kg. are Known to catch larger fish (a record is considered an instance of mass 6.7 kg, produced in 1956 in lake Konnevesi, Finland). Regular catches are dominated by individuals weighing not more than kg.
Grayling is practically omnivorous. Its usual food is benthic organisms, crustaceans, shrimps, mollusks, larvae and other forms developing in water insects (mayflies, caddisflies), and various terrestrial insects that accidentally fall into the water, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, botflies, midges. Will not miss grayling a chance to eat caviar and fish. Big grayling often eat the fry, and in more rare cases can attack and on small mammals (voles, shrews, etc.).
In the spring, in April and may, grayling wintering in deep holes downstream, leaving their apartment and climb — often under the ice — closer to their headwaters, and with the beginning of the flood come to breed in the tributaries. A similar picture can be observed at this time and grayling riverine populations. The only difference is that of the lakes the fish can go not only in the supply rivers and streams, but also to descend downstream rivers flowing into it. Along with Mature individuals (grayling become established for 3 – 5 year life), in the spring migrations and the young are involved. She has these migration look like pure feeding.
Grayling spawn in may and early June at a water temperature of +5 to 10° C on sandy-pebbly areas with moderately fast flow and the depth 30 — 60 cm lake Spawning grayling forms occur on shallow coastal areas of the lakes.
The foraging populations at the river lasts until about October. With the onset of autumn frosts (before appearance of sludge) grayling again, as in the spring, go on the road. But now their path lies in the opposite direction — to the usual wintering grounds. Similar routines and many riverine species. However, among the latter there are also environmental forms, which prefer after spawning to return to foraging in the lake. This behavior is characteristic of, for example, so-called black Baikal grayling.
During the feeding of grayling in the river are distributed along a channel on the basis of age. On the lower portions of the grayling, as a rule, small, and the higher the river, the larger. It is easy to explain. Because in order to climb high, fish need to spend a lot of effort, constantly fighting and with a rapid current, and with lots of natural obstacles. But small the grayling at this strength is just not enough.