Fish species bred in ponds
Carp is a domesticated form of carp, bred by a long selection work. From wild carp the carp is a more efficient use of feed, and in this regard, and grow in similar conditions carp diet. On other biological characteristics of carp and carp are very similar.
It is best to feed and grow carp at a temperature of 25-29°. When the temperature of the water feeding intensity of carp intensified, but the costs of the feed decreases due to the fact that the content of oxygen dissolved in water at elevated temperatures considerably below, than at lower, and the metabolic processes it needs more. In case of insufficient concentration of oxygen dissolved in water is bad carp to digest food.
Normal oxygen content in the water for carp believe about 5 cm3 in 1 L. the Allowable concentration is considered to be 3 to 3.5 cm3 in 1 L.
Sexual maturity carp reaches 4-5 on the year, but there are cases when it begins to multiply in third and sometimes second year. Males typically Mature somewhat earlier than females. The carp spawning occurs when water temperature 16-48°. Fecundity is usually estimated in 180 thousand eggs per 1 kg of body weight of the female.
In pond farming normalnamely standard for Karpov is considered: in the first year of 25-30 g, at the second 500-800 g, and the third about 1.5 kg. However, the potential of common carp growth was significantly higher. Under favorable conditions of nutrition, good oxygen regime and in the water warmed up enough good quality carp already during the first summer can reach a weight of 400-800 g.
Currently, carp is the main fish in pond fish culture. Distinguish scaly (body, like carp, are covered with scales), mirror naked and Karpov. The ratio between body height and its length and allocate vysokopillya square-back group of carp. Fish vysokomernoy group the ratio of body height to length varies from 1:2 to 1:2,6; fish square-back — 1:2,61 — 1:3.
Carp – very unpretentious. It is also very resistant to diseases and can live in such waters, where any other fish dies. Before the other fish carp advantage lies in the fact that he is hardy. The fry carp in winter from the cold are usually not killed, but adult carp are able to withstand even the solid freezing of the reservoir (adult fish can merznut in ice, and in the spring, after thawing, often continue to live a normal life),
There are two types of carp: more round with Golden colored Golden (yellow) and elongated with silvery scales — silver (white) . Golden carp begins to multiply on the fourth, the silver in the third year. The silver carp grows much quicker than gold.
Carp spawning begins in may — June. Golden carp lays eggs at water temperatures of 18-20°, silver at 20-22°. Vymatyvayutsya caviar not once, but several portions at intervals of 10-15 days.
Carp eggs are small, yellowish, stick to the stems of aquatic vegetation and other underwater objects (driftwood, sticks, etc.) on which develop. Development of eggs lasts 4-7 days.
Golden carp usually lives in Jaroslavich parts of the reservoir and in places with no vegetation, almost no comes. Silver carp dwells not only in coastal zerolevel part of the reservoir, but in exposed parts it.
The Golden carp adaptation to living in heavily overgrown, swampy water bodies in which breeding other species of fish is impractical and even impossible, makes it ideal for use in fish small marshy ponds, peat pits, shallow stagnant ponds. And this valuable quality of silver carp, omnivorous, allows much better use of the forage base ponds (in case of joint breeding with other species of fish, such as carp) and thus significantly increase the total fish yield per unit of water area.
Trout. In fish farms bred two species of trout — brook
Brook trout (speckled hen) — a cold-water fish. She is very sensitive to water quality. It is best to feed and grow at a temperature of 15-18°. Higher temperature takes bad. Feels good when the content of oxygen in the amount of 7-9 cm3 in 1 l of water and dies in 2-2,5 cm3 in 1 L. Propagated in autumn (October — December and even in January) on the chutes with a sandy-pebbly soils. Development of eggs lasts 2-4 months and even more. Trout caviar large, up to 4.5 mm in diameter. Colour it pale orange.
Fecundity of brook trout on average 1200 eggs 400 g weight females.
Produce larvae with a large yolk SAC, before the resorption of which they lie almost motionless under the rocks. Sexual maturity of brook trout comes on 3-4-th year.
Rainbow trout brook differs from a more rapid growth and a few less requirements to the environment. At high oxygen content (7-8 sm8 1 l) to recommend raising the temperature to 25-27° C and briefly even up to 30°. Propagated in spring from March to early may. Caviar develops 1/2—2 months.
The fecundity of rainbow trout up to 2500 eggs per 1 kg of body weight of the female. The size and color of the eggs is the same as brook trout. At the age of two rainbow trout weighs 400-450 g, in the three-year age — up to 1,5 kg. Narastaet in fast-flowing streams and rivers. In the ponds (even much running) trout do not spawn. So when they are breeding the eggs are fertilized artificially and incubated in special plants in special machines.
The cultivation of trout in ponds is based on her ability to eat, along with the natural food (gammarids, and insect larvae, fish fry, etc.) that are made from outside feed. These can serve a mixture of well chopped fresh slaughterhouse waste (blood, spleen, liver), frogs, molluscs, silkworm pupae, of various pests of agriculture and forestry, etc.
Sometimes rainbow trout are grown in ponds for carp as additional fish. To do this, choose the fishing ponds, reclaimed well, small in size, moderately or completely overgrown by aquatic vegetation, with a depth to 2-3 m, with good oxygen regime. In 1 ha area to godovikam carp sits on 50-100 year-old rainbow trout.