How to make a pond at the cottage
How to make a pond in the country is asked to tell many gardeners: some people like to make decoration of your garden, others dream to fish in your pond fish. For anyone who would like to have a pond on the plot, we offer to get acquainted with how to make a pond at the cottage .
Simple decorative pond with a depth of 50-60 cm can be done anywhere on the site. For its construction does not require expensive materials, it helps to stock up on clay or sand, gravel, felt paper or polymer film.
How to make a pond in the country — 1 method
First, dig a pit of the required size and shape with sloping soffits. At the bottom of the stack of well-crushed clay layer 10-15 cm, then smooth down with water and allow to dry, then stack the second layer of clay 10-15 cm, mounted on a small gravel or pebbles and tamped.
How to make a pond in the country — 2 way
Another method of construction of the reservoir — with the use of waterproofing, which can be made from tar paper or polymer film. Their spread in several layers on the sand (10 cm) on top and sprinkled fine gravel (10-12 cm). Currently on the market there are various types of plastic films: polyvinyl chloride (PVC film),polypropylene, polyethylene and other polymers.
The pond on the plot you can build a square 3×5, 5×7, 10×15 m, etc. it is necessary to consider that is it should be from North to South. This will contribute to a better lighting and heating water. It is not recommended to build a pond under large trees so that they did not shade it, and falling from the trees leaves and fruits, decaying, do not degrade water quality or result in fish kills.
Before construction of the pond should gently remove the top layer, then choose required quantity of the earth to the depth of the pond on the North side was 1, with Selected South -1.7 m. the land can be used for dams. Slopes should be gentle (about 45°). The pond bottom and inner slopes of dikes fit the previously removed sod and strengthened by large cobbles. Then gradually, over 2 to 3 days, the pond is filled with water. Need to a few days (3-4) defend.
How to make a pond in the country — planting trees
It is desirable at this time to plant submerged and floating plants. From underwater plants use hornwort, curly pondweed, Elodea, floating — vodokras ordinary, yellow pods, Salvinia natans, water chestnut. The banks can be planted narrow-leaved cattail, Wapato, etc. Underwater and floating plants not only serve a decorative function, and contribute to the maintenance of biological balance in the pond, but provided that they occupy not more than 20% of its surface. Terrestrial plant dykes and slopes of the pond. About plants for your pond we have previously spoken ( American skunk cabbages and Kamchatka , the Hindu Lotus and Buttercup longifolia. gubastik opened and the manna large )
If the pond is built on a heavily filtering the soil at the bottom poured a layer of sand (10-15 cm) on which stack bonded fabric of polyethylene film. The top film is also covered with a layer of sand (15-20 cm) previously removed and laid out sod land, and the slopes are strengthened with stones, cobblestones or large pebbles. If desired, the bottom of the dam and the pond it would be good to pour.
How to make a pond in the country — production in pond fish
In the spring, when the water temperature reaches b—8°C, it is possible to start stocking the pond. It is recommended to grow several fish species with different spectrum of power.
So, carp feed on zoobenthos and artificial food, white silver carp is a phytoplankton, bighead carp is zooplankton, carp — vegetation. These four species do not compete in power, so it is advisable to grow them together. You can also be kept in a pond and added fish — paddlefish, Bester, pilengas, Buffalo, etc., it is desirable presence in the ponds of a crayfish (1-2 PCs. per 1 m2).
In ponds where there is no flow, the density of fish in the feeding area must not exceed: carp — 5-7, white silver carp — 3-5, bighead carp — 1-2, white Amur — 1-2, carp — 4-5 PCs./m2. And where there is the ability to create a constant flow or aeration of water, planting density of carp can be increased in 3-5 times.
Planting material (godovikam — spring period in the fall) should be healthy and plump. The average individual weight of carp, carp and Amur should not be below 30 g.
Under favorable conditions of feeding all the fish in the fall of reach the mass of 500-800 g, and the total output from 1 m2 will be from 5 to 20 kg or more. The pond area of 15 m2 (3 x 5 m) capable of giving 75-300 kg of high quality fish products annually.
To obtain good results, it is necessary after stocking to organize feeding the carp to artificial feed at the rate of 1% by weight of fish at the beginning of the season, and with increase of water temperature by the number of feed is increased and by mid-August, reaches 8-10%.
The feeding must be repeated, at least twice a day, morning (before 8 hours) and evening (from 17 to 19 hours), and best of all carp to feed every three hours from 6 to 19 hours. In the evening you can hang an incandescent bulb and it scalded insects, falling into the water, give the fish extra protein, and they grow better.
In the summer with increasing water temperature must constantly monitor its quality. Water should be odorless hydrogen sulfide, on the surface to prevent any oily residue and air bubbles.
When deterioration of water quality, fish is always on the surface and grasps for breath. When you hear the sound of bursting air bubbles. In this case, it is necessary to supply the pond with fresh water and to conduct its aeration. If not promptly take the necessary measures, all the fish will die from lack of oxygen.
Decide whether you need at the cottage, the pond or not: now you know how to make a pond at the cottage .