The construction of ponds and lakes
The arrangement of the reservoir for fish production is significantly different from how built swimming pools or ornamental ponds artificial, because it often involves different technologies and equipment.
The construction of ponds for cultivation of fish requires compliance with certain conditions:
1. The bottom of an artificial pond closely aligned. The presence of pits causes waterlogging of the soil.
2. For fish farming is preferable to drain the artificial pond. Drain ponds are less prone to waterlogging and siltation, provide a greater increase fish where it is more convenient to treat the bottom.
3. Growing directly at the shore of the bushes and trees were being uprooted flush with the bottom of the pond. Otherwise, they may hinder fishing and cause the overgrowing of the pond.
4. Available on the site the keys, springs, groundwater discharges has been cleared to enhance the natural flow of water in the lake. Artificial pond at the cottage come in places protected from strong winds and constant exposure to sunlight. Ideally, the sun should affect the water no more than 6 hours a day. Ultraviolet light promotes the growth of algae and bacteria.It is undesirable to have a pond in the shade of the trees, in autumn the leaves will pollute the water, and the growth of the root system can damage the bottom of the pond.
There are several types of ponds in which to breed fish. For these purposes, dug, lined and instream ponds, small reservoirs, waste peat quarries, pools and ponds.
Construction of suburban ponds for fish production takes place in accordance with fish and hydraulic requirements. For pond serving purely practical purposes, of great importance is the arrangement of the bed, good water supply, water discharge. Water is supplied to the artificial pond by gravity through channels or pipes. If the pond is below the source, water is supplied by a pump.
For fish farming should be preferred to the lined ponds, you can make them bleed. They are comfortable and have a higher natural productivity. Suitable place for the construction of a pond may be the ravine with gentle slopes or land with a slight slope, on which you can build a pond method of construction of dams on the perimeter. But it is worth remembering that during heavy rains in an artificial pond, situated at the bottom, can fall rubbish, soil and fertilizers from the site. Important and the nature of the soil. Soil with low permeability protects the pond from water loss. The construction of artificial lakes the best place on the clay soils. On sandy soils and soils with a high content of gravel you can build an artificial pond, reinforcing dams, slopes, box shots plastic film, the top film is covered in soil.
The most common mistake in the construction of pond – fish pond on the plot – construction of a small pond. In the reservoir of large size is more convenient to maintain the ecological balance, its size contribute to the creation of favourable conditions for plants and aquatic inhabitants. A small pond requires more attention and regular replacement of water. If your dream is a pond for fish, you should consider that 1 square meter should have no more than 10 fish the size of 50-70 mm. After the construction of the ponds is coming to an end, it often turns out that the real object somewhat smaller than what was introduced initially. Pond goldfish should be about sixty centimeters in depth, although in colder areas may need a lot of depth to prevent freezing of water in winter. For other species of fish will suit your pond depth of 1 m or more.
An important point to consider about the construction and stocking of an artificial pond at the cottage or at the farm – oxygen mode. The lack of oxygen can cause fish kills. In natural freshwater ponds water is oxygenated as a result of exposure to wind and temperature variations: in addition, select water plants. Special attention to water quality is necessary to pay at construction of ponds for growing trout. The recommended oxygen content for trout and other cold-water fish 5-7 cm3 corresponds to 1 l, for carp and herbivorous fish is 3.5-5 cm3. To avoid depletion of water oxygen aeration is needed, especially in winter.
The quality and quantity of water available for water supply, will be decisive for the choice of species and technologies of their cultivation. In addition to oxygen, are dissolved in water nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Contaminated artificial pond or artificial lake may contain hydrogen sulfide and methane. To do chemical analysis of water into any sanitary-epidemiological station, agrochemical laboratory or laboratories fish farms. Water must be free from suspensions, to not have odors, tastes and color. It is unacceptable presence in water of hydrogen sulfide, chlorine, methane and poisonous substances.Excess carbon dioxide (more than 10-20 mg per 1 l) are unfavorable for fish life.