The threat of the black sea hydrobionts

Toxicity is a universal and widespread phenomenon in nature. Many inhabitants of the seas and oceans have become toxic in the process of their continuous development and adaptation to the environment. They use “toxic weapons” of diverse chemical composition. Among poisonous animals forms occur in almost all taxonomic groups.

Toxins entering the body (through a bite, a shot of the fins, eaten by fish), usually affect the Central and peripheral nervous system. In addition, the protein composition of toxins can cause severe allergic reactions.

The toxicity of poisons depends not only on kind of marine life, as well as its age and gender, conditions of growth and nutrition, time of year and habitat. Given the rapid development of toxic effects, in the treatment of poisoning poisons marine life are of great importance to measure the first self – help and mutual aid, as discussed below.

In the Black sea, in one of the most “poor” in species composition (after the Caspian and Azov) seas of our Planet, fortunately there is very little threat to humans aquatic organisms, and in this respect it can be stated that the black sea lucky divers. We have no deadly coelenterates (flowing down), such as a very poisonous jellyfish and hydroids. In the Black sea do not live dangerous sea urchins and stars and we have monopati in the hands of any shellfish without fear to get a lethal injection, as from poisonous cone.

Currently known for the black sea basin more than 230 species of fish in varying degrees, dangerous to humans, one can name only 5-6 species.

Despite such a small number of fish species dangerous to humans, almost every divers must sooner or later confronted with these fish, because some of them are fairly abundant in coastal waters in many areas of the Black sea, including in it freshened the North-Western part. Increases the number of contacts with dangerous fish and the fact that some of them are quite edible and are objects of spearfishing. The same kind as, for example, sea dragon, sometimes gets the hook fishermen-fans, and looking like a bull, be unpleasant “surprise” for hto grabbed his bare hand.

Consider the taxonomic order is the most dangerous known sea fish, when “communication” with which you must comply with the basic rules of caution.

Shark-spiny dogfish, is a very common across the globe shark, living in both salt and freshened waters. It is called barbed two strong sharp poisonous thorns in front of dorsal fins. The shark rarely reaches a length of 2 meters, often up to 1.5 m. ovoviviparous Refers to a cold-water fish, preferring water temperatures up to 15 C. the banks may be found in autumn and spring, when the sea water is already cold. Feeds on fish and invertebrates, there is information that may attack small Dolphin-azovka (harbour porpoise).

Per person Katran never attacks, but when hunting it is easy to get hurt on the spikes upper dorsal fin.

In the event of danger, the shark bends its body sharply, aiming to stab their spines and can inflict deep painful wounds. The tip of the spines glabrous, lower part covered with a leathery case, which are poisonous glands. When the pressure of the tissues of the victim in iron shark is released poisonous secretions in the wound. When catching such a predator need to remember that her teeth “shark” and rough handling of a caught predator can be bitten.

2. Stingray, sea cat ( Dasiatis pastinaca ).

In the Black sea is home to one species of stingrays, however, in the world fauna of over 30 species of stingrays. All stingrays have a long, whip-like tail close to its base a sharp “dagger” – which may be scabrose on the sides of the bone needle or spike.

Black Stingray, it is quite large, sometimes more than 2 meters wide ovoviviparous fish, sometimes reaching a weight of 36 kg. In some instances, the spike can reach a length of 30 cm, with spikes of different lengths may be several. The edges of the stud have the teeth directed towards its base. The body of the bare slope, only on the back there are small spikes. The basic color is grayish‑brown, greenish, and white belly. Fish bottom.

More likely to suffer from injections stingrays, fishermen, divers and simple bathers.

Usually on man hvostokol does not attack itself, and most accidents wittingly or unwittingly caused by people. The wounds of rays, can be considerable and are accompanied by symptoms of poisoning. Often, the person comes on the rays, lying motionless in shallow water and camouflaged with sand, and the fish immediately strikes the tail, so in the places of their permanent residence to move better dragging your feet along the bottom. This reduces the danger of stepping on a Stingray and scares him.

Injuries caused by stingrays, extremely painful and very dangerous. The victim immediately feels a sharp pain, then may be followed by a drop in blood pressure, vomiting, palpitations, muscle paralysis, and sometimes death. Poisoning characterized by the development of weakness, sometimes loss of consciousness, diarrhoea, convulsions and respiratory failure. Lesions of the limbs, if you are lucky and there is no secondary infection, usually ends in recovery after a few days. However, a shot in the chest or abdomen can be fatal.

It is useful to remember that the impact force of the tail of the Stingray, especially the big ones, is that they easily penetrate clothing and even shoes.

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