Tornadoes – the Disaster in the Black sea
One of the dangerous natural phenomena are often observed in the North-East of the Black sea and in the South-East of the Azov sea — tornadoes.
L. Z. according to PA . “…in most cases, the tornado is the most destructive phenomenon of nature”. They are quite frequent in many areas of the globe, particularly in Russia, Ukraine, Central Asia. In the U.S., for example, from tornadoes on land (they call them tornado) annual average of 113 people killed, and material losses amount to about 75 million dollars. According to others, the losses are even more significant . From 1916 to 1960 in the U.S. have 11503 tornado, from 1916 to 1950 died 7961 people, and the loss was $ 500 million. Statistics of losses in the USSR and the CIS, we could not be found. Probably not.
In the waters of the seas happen very dangerous spout. They occur near capes in shallow seas and at the boundaries of warm currents. It is believed that spout there are no more than 40 minutes; they have a diameter of 5-100 m. the Tornadoes on land are larger. The funnel of a tornado usually develops from a big rain clouds and resembles a twisted rope. She, however, may consist of a fresh water cloud, and to involve salt water. Inside the crater there is a strong downward movement of air at speeds up to 80 km/h. This stream is bordered by powerful updrafts with speeds up to 90 km/h, bearing broken from water splashes, dust and condensed vapours. D. V. Nalivkin says that the speed of the air in katastroficheskie reaches 332 km/h — the speed of sound! By lowering the pressure in the center of the tornado it turns into a huge suction pump and can lift up various objects, living creatures are sometimes so high (up to 1000 m) that they freeze and get covered with ice. Tornadoes are hail, even ball lightning, regular lightning frequent. The funnel of a tornado is able to keep in the air up to half a million tons of water!
Water tornadoes are often accompanied by cascades — a cloud or a pillar of water spray at the base of the tornado. The height of the cascade can reach several hundred meters, but often several tens of meters .
The path length of the tornado up to 8-16 km but sometimes up to 200 or even 500 km the velocity of the tornado, from scratch, when he’s standing still, up to 240 km/h.
Tornadoes, water tornadoes especially in the Azov-black sea basin, are very destructive and are often accompanied by victims. D. the Hydrometeorology Old in the period from 1924 to 1934 he recorded in the Azov-black sea region, 24 cases of occurrence of tornadoes. They appear usually in the warmer months and often lead to disaster. So, on July 14, 1924, a tornado passed through the Kuban marshes and the estuary Kurchanskaya on Taman in the steppe. There he picked up three boys-shepherds, one of which is soon found dead. The fate of two others is unknown. According to D. Starov, September 20, 1927 in Kerch, Yenikale area, smerdely the whirlwind lifted into the air and threw for 150 m boat and a canoe, turning them into splinters. One of the fishermen was killed, three maimed. Several boats smashed on the shore . Sometimes, fortunately, the occurrence of a tornado is not accompanied by losses. From 22 July to 29 September 1954, on the Caucasian coast of the Black sea with radar equipment and visually registered four tornado. That’s borrowed from the literature description a witness to one of them:
“In the second half of the day in the South, in the sea, seemed to lead the black storm clouds slowly approaching the coast. Suddenly, in 16 hours 40 minutes from the middle of one of the clouds slowly began to descend to the surface of the sea a huge grey trunk, he rose to meet the post splashing water and dust. Then everything merges into a single water column. A giant spinning top, gradually thickening, menacingly approaching the shore. It seemed that the sea merged with the sky, and the water itself runs up extraordinary hose. Before reaching the coast, the tornado began to weaken and in 16 hours 59 minutes apart. It was observed in only 19 minutes.”
At this time there were… unfortunately, so happens not always.
A severe accident caused by the tornado occurred in July 1991, near Tuapse. Powerful water tornado “unloaded” just in the mountains near the town of Tuapse. A huge mass of water to the accompaniment of lightning and storm winds rushed through the valley of the river to the sea. The height of the water shaft in the area of Tuapse reached 8 m. Some beautiful mountainous villages of Goeth, George, Hernan — were covered and destroyed the shaft.
In Tuapse has been destroyed in the intake, damaged the electricity network, oil tank farm. Fuel has got into the sea. Landslides caused by the tornado destroyed a gas pipeline Maikop-Sochi, highways, railroad Tuapse-Sochi-Georgia. Left homeless thousands of people. 27 people died. For a long time rescuers, and helicopters were looking for the missing person . The losses were huge. But it is only one hit of a tornado!
Every year in the Azov-black sea basin is, obviously, a few cases of occurrence of tornadoes. The scale and implications are different. Probably many of them we just don’t know, there are no established and published information. And we need to know and be afraid of this terrible disaster.